Research into biological systems within Mechanical Engineering encompasses studies from the scale of the human down to the scale of the atom or molecule. Bio-sensing makes use of micro-fluidic devices and novel nanoscale materials to detect signatures that arise from diseases, or from toxins and pathogens in our environment. This research area is very multi-disciplinary with collaborations with Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Research on Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nanostructures includes optical nanostructures and optical MEMS, physical sensors, and microfluidic devices. Biomechanics research looks at the human or animal body in terms of mechanical systems and relates those characteristics to normal function, disease processes, performance in sports, or the development of advanced medical devices and/or prostheses for joints and limbs.